4 Easy Experiments to Prove Quantum Mechanics to Your Drunk Friend

science_drinking

By Bradley Stockwell

I once had a friend after a long night of drinking consult me on his living room couch, “What does quantum mechanics really mean?” I guess he asked because I blabbed about physics so much that he considered me an expert in the field rather than just the casual student I really am. I was taken aback for this particular friend and I had never discussed physics—let alone quantum mechanics—in our entire five year relationship. He was the friend I turned to when I needed a break from intellectual studies to indulge in the simpler pleasures of life such as beer and sports. He was also so heavily inebriated that I was pretty sure he wasn’t even going to remember asking the question in the morning (which I was indeed later proven right).

I answered casually, “Well, it’s the physics of atoms and atoms make up everything, so I guess it means everything.” Not satisfied with my answer he replied slurredly, “No really, what does it mean? We can’t really see what goes on in an atom so how do we really know? What if it’s just some guys too smart for their own good making it all up? Can we really trust it? From what I know we still don’t completely understand it so how do we know if it’s really real? Maybe there’s just some things as humans were not supposed to understand.”

After a few moments of contemplation I answered: “Everything from your smartphone to the latest advances in medicine, computer and materials technology, to the fact you’re changing channels on the TV with that remote in your hand is a result of understanding quantum mechanics. But you’re right; we still don’t fully understand it and it’s continually showing us that the universe is probably a place we’ll never fully grasp, but that doesn’t mean we should give up…” I then continued with what might’ve been too highbrow of an explanation of quantum mechanics for an extremely drunk person at 3 a.m. because halfway through he fell asleep.

As my friend snored beside me, I couldn’t help but be bothered that he and so many others still considered quantum mechanics such an abstract thing more than a hundred years after its discovery. I thought if only I could ground it in some way to make people realize that they interact with quantum mechanics every day; that it really was rooted in reality and not a part of some abstract world only understood by physicists. I myself being a layperson with no university-level education in science learned to understand it with nothing more than some old physics books and free online classes. Granted it wasn’t easy and took a lot of work—work I’m still continuing, but it’s an extremely rewarding work because the more I understand, the more exciting and wonderful the world around me becomes.

This was my inspiration behind The Party Trick Physicist blog; to teach others about the extraordinary world of science and physics in a format that drunk people at 3 a.m. might understand. I make no promises and do at times offer more in-depth posts, but I do my best. With this said, as unimaginative as a post about at-home physics experiments felt to me initially, there’s probably no better way to ground quantum mechanics—to even a drunk person at 3 a.m.—than some hands on experience. Below are four simple quantum mechanical experiments that anyone can do at home, or even at a party.

1. See Electron Footprints

For this experiment you’ll be building an easy to make spectroscope/ spectrograph to capture or photograph light spectra. For the step-by-step tutorial on how to build one click here. After following the instructions you should end up with, or see a partial emission spectrum like this one below.

mercury emission spectrum

Now what exactly do these colored lines have to do with electrons? Detailed in a previous post, The Layman’s Guide to Quantum Mechanics- Part 2: Let’s Get Weird, they are electron footprints! You see, electrons can only occupy certain orbital paths within an atom and in order to move up to a higher orbital path, they need energy and they get it by absorbing light—but only the right portions of light. They need specific ranges of energy, or colors, to make these jumps. Then when they jump back down, they emit the light they absorbed and that’s what you’re seeing above; an emission spectrum. An emission spectrum is the specific energies, or colors an electron needs—in this case mercury electrons within the florescent light bulb—to make these orbital, or ‘quantum’ leaps. Every element has a unique emission spectrum and that’s how we identify the chemical composition of something, or know what faraway planets and stars are made of; just by looking at the light they emit.

2. Measure The Speed of Light With a Chocolate Bar

This is probably the easiest experiment as it only requires a chocolate bar, a microwave oven, a ruler and calculator. I’ve actually done this one myself at a party and while you’ll come off as a nerd, you’ll be the coolest one there. Click here for a great step-by-step tutorial and explanation from planet-science.com

3. Prove Light Acts as a Wave

This is how you can replicate Thomas Young’s famous double slit experiment that definitively proved (for about 100 years) that light acts as a wave. All you need is a laser pointer, electrical tape, wire and scissors. Click here for a step-by-step video tutorial.

4. Prove Light Also Acts as a Particle 

This experiment is probably only for the most ambitious at-home physicists because it is the most labor and materials extensive. However this was the experiment that started it all; the one that gave birth to quantum mechanics and eventually led to our modern view of the subatomic world; that particles, whether they be of light or matter, act as both a wave and a particle. Explained in detail in my previous post The Layman’s Guide to Quantum Mechanics- Part I: The Beginning, this was the experiment that proved Einstein’s photoelectric effect theory, for which he won his only Nobel Prize. Click here to learn how to make your own photoelectric effect experiment.

Good luck my fellow party trick physicists and until next time, stay curious.

Why We Are Tone Deaf to the Music of Light

the-art-of-sound

By Bradley Stockwell

When I sit down at a piano I see a lot more than keys; I see an immense sonic spectrum ranging from sound frequencies of 27 hertz to over 4,000. A hertz, if you’re unaware, is one cycle of a wave per second, in this case a sound wave. When I press a C4 key, a vibrating string is displacing waves of air molecules at 260 times per second against my eardrum and my brain interprets those fluctuations as a middle C. And our amazing brain can do that with a range of frequencies about five times the size of a piano’s. It’s too bad our eyes are so limited in comparison.

While a human eye is an incredibly complex organ, it is severely tone deaf when it comes to the music of light. To understand what I mean by this, we must first change how you view light. On a sub-atomic level, light is made up of little spiraling packets of energy called photons. When these twisted little guys interact with one another they dance in a synchronized wave pattern and form light waves. This is how particles behave on a quantum-scale; they exhibit features both of a particle and of a wave. The varying energies of these photons, or how fast the little guys are spinning, produce differing light wave frequencies that our eyes detect as colors. For example the light waves that make up the color red cycle slower than the light waves that make up the color blue.

Just like there are sounds we can’t hear, either the sound waves are too fast or too slow for our brain to detect, there are also colors, or light waves, we can’t see. Of course just because we can’t see them doesn’t mean they don’t exist. In fact we interact with these colors all the time. When you tune into a radio station, you’re tuning into a signal being transmitted over a light wave called a radio wave. A radio station such as 95.5 KLOS is broadcasting their signal over a light wave with a frequency of roughly 95.5 megahertz; that’s 95.5 million oscillations per second, which is actually quite low. The lower the frequency, the longer the wavelength. That is how radio signals travel over long distances. Infrared light waves, just outside the lower end of visible light, is what your body emits as heat and changes the channel on your television when they are transmitted from your remote. If you’ve ever had a sunburn, that is the result of light waves just outside the higher end of visible light, called ultraviolet waves, overexciting the DNA that creates your skin tissue. If you’ve ever had an x-ray image taken, that is an inverted visual display of the high frequency waves, known as x-rays, which were shot through your body that weren’t absorbed by dense objects like your bones. A low energy wave called a microwave excites molecules of water inside your food to produce heat when you zap your leftovers. These are all things you’re familiar with and they all involve light, or in the language of physics, electromagnetic radiation.

Now just to give you a perspective of how limited our eyes are at detecting light I’m going to transpose the electromagnetic spectrum, the known frequencies of light from 1,000 hertz to one zettahertz (that’s 1 with 21 zeros after it), onto the sound frequencies found on an 88-key piano (this sounds more impressive than it actually is—only simple algebra involved). Radio waves, like the ones radio and TV stations use, take up the lowest 26 keys from A0 to A#2. Microwaves take up the next 16, B2 to D4. Infrared waves the next 14, D#4 to E5. Then visible light, which makes up our entire visual reality, takes up only one key, F5. The next eleven keys, F#5 to E6 are ultraviolet waves. The following ten, F6 to D7 are x-ray waves and the remaining ten are called gamma waves; D#7 to C8.*

 

electromagnetic_spectrum_piano*These proportions aren’t exact because where one type of wave begins and ends is debatable and I had to approximate for demonstration purposes. But it does accurately show the limited perspective of our vision.